I am a preschool SLP and we do screenings every month. I take a language sample, use our /who, what, where/ question decks to ask them around 4 of each to see how well they answer questions, and the early childhood teacher checks some basic concepts (same/ different, big/little, in/on/under/out/off/front/back. You could also have some pictures of common items and ask them to label & give the function (there are some sheets here on SoS in the materials exchange that have WH question pictures and function of object sheets).
As far as artic-- I can usually tell just by listening whether they're age appropriate & make note of any errors on their language sample sheet off to the side, but we also have a speech screening form where there is one word you ask them to say for each word position for each target sound (i.e. for /n/, there is "nose" "bunny" and "fan" for beginning, middle, and final /n/. You could put together a word list like that if you needed a speech screening tool!